Top Veterinary Medications
At PenCol Specialty Pharmacy, we specialize in compounding medications that address some of the most important health issues for pets and other animals.
Here are some of the most frequently compounded medications we prepare:
• Diethylstibestrol (DES)
Diethylstibestrol (DES) is a synthetic female hormone that is used to treat urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs. It mimics the effects of the natural female hormone, estrogen. DES is also used in the treatment of some cancers in both male and female dogs, also to manage prostatic hypertrophy (enlarged prostate). A less common use is the administration of Diethylstibestrol for certain reproductive conditions.
PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense DES in capsules, liquid suspension, or chews.
Apomorphine is a derivative of morphine and is one of the most effective medications that can induce vomiting in dogs. Unlike morphine, Apomorphine does not alleviate pain. Apomorphine stimulates the dopamine receptors in the specific part of the brain that induces vomiting. This drug is typically only prescribed to dogs. Its use in cats is controversial since morphine type drugs can cause an excitatory reaction in cats.
As with all vomit-inducing medications, usually only 40 to 60 percent of the stomach’s contents are removed. Apomorphine is slowly absorbed after oral ingestion, so it is usually given as an injection or topical on the eye. When given intravenously, vomiting occurs rapidly. After intramuscular injection, vomiting usually occurs within five minutes but may be more prolonged.
PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense Apomorphine as an injection or as capsules.
Stanozolol is an anabolic steroid that has been prescribed to improve appetite, weight gain and/or increase muscle strength; particularly in horses but can also be used in dog and cats. It is often used to treat anemia.
While generally safe, stanozolol may cause side effects in some animals. Stanozolol should not be used in pregnant animals or in male animals intended for breeding as it can severely reduce sperm count. Use should also be avoided in animals with hypersensitivity or known allergy to the drug. Stanozolol should be used with caution in animals with heart, liver, or kidney disease, and may interact with other medications.
A 50mg/mL vial is generally used via intramuscular injection for equine patients. We could also provide capsules for small animal oral administration.
Effectively used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, Methimazole is only commercially available in tablet form, often making it difficult to administer to cats. At PenCol Specialty Pharmacy, we can compound Methimazole into easy to administer forms:
• An oral suspension (cats like cod liver and tuna bases)
• Transdermal gel in a dosage syringe that is massaged onto the hairless front tip of the cat’s ear for absorption through the skin.
The effectiveness of drug therapy may be monitored by measuring blood hormone levels. Please contact us with any questions you may have.
Pregabalin is one of the medications that is used to treat dogs and cats with idiopathic epilepsy. Pregabalin is a neuroactive medication that works in a way that is similar to Gabapentin in that it binds to calcium channels, thereby decreasing calcium influx, which has been shown to be an active trigger of seizures in animals. Pregabalin is prescribed as an alternative therapy for pets that don’t benefit from, or have sensitivity issues with, Phenobarbital or Potassium Bromide. In addition to being an appropriate medication for seizure control, Pregabalin also has been shown to be an effective modulator for neuropathic pain. Like phenobarbital, Pregabalin can decrease the activity in the Glutamate neurotransmitter in the brain. As a result, the medication also can produce a reduction in the activity in other neurons as well, and this can lead to lethargy and other unwanted side-effects. As a result, pets that are prescribed Pregabalin should be monitored closely. Other potential side effects of Pregabalin include dry mouth, dizziness, constipation, nausea, vomiting, gas, anxiety, and weight gain. In some cases, Pregabalin has caused a pet to experience sores, redness, and other skin irritations. Precautions for Using Pregabalin There are some instances in which using Pregabalin should be closely guarded. These include the pet is taking ACE inhibitors, antidepressants, antihistamines, anti-anxiety medications, narcotic pain medications, sedatives, tranquilizers, or any other anticonvulsant medication for seizure control. Pregabalin should be avoided in pets who are pregnant or nursing, as well as in those with a known sensitivity to the drug. Pregabalin is commercially available as Lyrica®.
Prednisolone Ophthalmic Dops (1%) may be prescribed for:
• Managing swelling, itching, and redness.
• Ophthalmic inflammation.
Prednisolone acetate is a topical anti-inflammatory agent used for managing swelling, itching, and redness of the eyes and eyelids in cats and dogs. It is a potent glucocorticoid, which could be used effectively for the inflammation of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and frontal globe.
Prednisolone is commercially available, but PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense.
Metronidazole is used to treat protozoal infections and dogs and cats including Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Balantidium. It can also be used to treat anaerobic bacterial infections. Metronidazole has immune modulating activity and may be prescribed to treat inflammatory bowel disease. It may be used to treat colitis caused by other antibiotics, periodontal disease (especially in cats). Clostridium perfingens enterotoxemia, tetanus, diarrhea of undetermined cause, pancreatic insufficiency (with small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth), and complications of severe liver disease, Metronidazole may be used with corticosteroids to treat inflammatory bowel disease or gum disease (gingivitis/stomatitis) in cats. Topical Metronidazole gel is used to treat skin infections, such as feline chin acne.
Metronidazole Is usually tolerated better if given with food. There is a wide variety of flavors and preparations we can make to address problems associated with the bitter taste. PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense Metronidazole in capsules, liquid suspension, or chews.
Budesonide is a systemic glucocorticoid (steroid) used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs and cats, especially when other steroids are ineffective, or the pet is unable to tolerate steroids. It may also be used to treat sinus inflammation or asthma.
PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense Budesonide in capsules, liquid suspension, or chews.
Trilostane is an enzyme inhibiting medication. It is used in the treatment of canine Cushing’s disease and in some cases Trilostane may also be an appropriate treatment for horses, cats, and other conditions.
Trilostane May be administered in once daily doses or in smaller more frequent doses to reduce the occurrence of side effects. Usually 5-60mg.
PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense Budesonide in capsules, liquid suspension, or chews.
Piroxicam is an NSAID that is used to treat some cancers in dogs and cats and, to a lesser degree, for pain due to osteoarthritis. Piroxicam Is a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor with inhibitory effects on both COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 produces prostaglandins that regulate homeostasis, allowing the kidney to respond to hypo tension and protect the GI tract. COX-2 pushes the prostaglandins better increased in the presence of inflammation. COX-2 Is upregulated in many types of tumors, including nasal epithelial tumors, mammary tumors, colorectal tumorsoral squamous cell carcinomaoral melanoma, prostatic carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and osteosarcoma.
Tylosin is an antibiotic in the same family as Erythromycin. It is primarily used in cats, dogs, and small mammals to treat diarrhea and implementation of the gastrointestinal tract. Tylosin is used in dogs to treat inflammatory bowel disease and its use in dogs, cats, and ferrets to treat certain intestinal infections causing diarrhea.
PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can dispense Tylosin in capsules, liquid suspension, or chews.
Theophylline is used to treat asthmatic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other respiratory issues. It is a bronchodilator use two reduce inflammation and swelling of muscles in the lungs and chest. Theophylline facilitates respiration by widening bronchial tubes and relaxing muscles.
This medication works as a stimulant for the central nervous system and allows dogs to breathe easily while they’re asleep. PenCol Specialty Pharmacy can compound Theophylline in liquid and capsule form.
Theophylline should not be given in conjunction with other medications such as Enrofloxacin, Cimetidine, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Lincomycin, Phenobarbital or Propranolol. (vetinfo.com)
Gabapentin is used in both dogs and cats to treat chronic pain, particularly of neuropathic origin. It appears to be most effective when combined with other types of analgesic agents, for example NSAIDs, permitting the use of lower doses. It has been shown to be effective at reducing hyperalgesia and allodynia, associated with neuropathic pain. It also is used in chronic arthritic pain and pain associated with malignancy.
In dogs, oral gabapentin is well absorbed in the duodenum, with peak levels occurring approximately one to two hours after administration. It is partially metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Gabapentin has a short half-life of between two to four hours. No pharmacokinetic information regarding uptake and metabolism was found for cats.
Gabapentin should be used with caution in animals with decrease of liver or renal function.
Gabapentin should not be discontinued abruptly because withdrawal may precipitate seizures or rebound pain. The dosage should be decreased over the course of two to three weeks.
In laboratory animals, gabapentin was associated with fetal loss and teratogenic effects. It also is present in milk. It should be used during pregnancy or lactation only when the benefits outweigh the potential risks.
The commercially available human liquid product contains xylitol, which can be hepatoxic and dogs.